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  • Contents
  • Contents

    Title Page And Table of Contents

    i

    Title Page And Table of Contents


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    Acknowledgements

    v

    Acknowledgements


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    List of Tables and Figures

    ix

    List of Tables and Figures


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    Chapter 1: Introduction

    1

    1.1 Barriers and Opportunities
    2
    1.2 Source Reduction’s Place in Industrial Hygiene
    5

    Chapter 1: Introduction


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    Chapter 2: History and Theory of Prevention and Control in Industrial Hygiene

    7

    2.1 Hazards as Engineering Problems and Attitudes Toward Interventions
    7
    2.2 Defining Engineering Controls
    9
    2.3 The Level of Control
    10
    2.4 Role of the Industrial Hygienist
    11
    2.5 Workers’ Role in Control
    12
    2.6 General Preference for Environmental Control over “Control at the Worker”
    12
    2.7 Hierarchy of Controls
    13
    2.8 The Public Health Model: Control at the Source
    15
    2.9 Other Approaches and Ideas about Control
    16
    2.1 Relation of Substitution to LEV
    17
    2.11 Attitudes Toward Substitution
    18
    2.12 Substitutes
    20
    2.13 Process Changes
    20
    2.14 Environmental Concerns
    21
    2.14 Conclusions
    21

    Chapter 2: History and Theory of Prevention and Control in Industrial Hygiene


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    Chapter 3: Controls and Prevention in OSHA Policy

    23

    3.1 Methods of Compliance Under Review
    23
    3.2 NIOSH Has a Different Idea: Control at the Source
    25
    3.3 OSHA’s “Flexible” Status Quo
    25
    3.4 OSHA’s Generic Cancer Policy and Air Contaminants Standards: Expanding Feasibility
    26
    3.5 The Courts’ Interpretation of Feasibility of Controls: OSHA’s Technology-Forcing Power
    27
    3.6 Feasibility in Practice: Traditional Controls Approach Hinders Effective Regulation.
    29
    3.7 OSHA’s Field Guidance.
    30
    3.8 Conclusion
    30

    Chapter 3: Controls and Prevention in OSHA Policy


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    Chapter 4: Industrial Hygienists’ Experience

    33

    4.1 Hierarchy of Controls
    34
    4.2 Integrating the Environment
    34
    4.3 Examples of Primary Preventive Strategies
    35
    4.4 Barriers
    37
    4.5 Opportunities
    39
    4.6 Discussion
    41
    4.7 Conclusions
    42

    Chapter 4: Industrial Hygienists’ Experience


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    Chapter 5: A Practical Approach to Source Reduction for Hazard Prevention

    43

    5.1 Step 1: Increase Your Understanding
    43
    5.1.1 Definitions
    43
    5.1.2 Source Reduction Techniques
    44
    5.1.3 General Resources
    45
    5.2 Step 2. Build a Team
    45
    5.3 Step 3: Do an Assessment
    45
    5.4 Step 4: Planning and Taking Action.
    46
    5.5 Step 5: Evaluation and Promotion
    47
    5.6 Conclusion
    47
    5.7 Resources for Finding Alternatives
    48

    Chapter 5: A Practical Approach to Source Reduction for Hazard Prevention


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    Chapter 6: Case Study “Source Reduction in Vessel Cleaning”

    49

    Chapter 6: Case Study “Source Reduction in Vessel Cleaning”


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    Chapter 7: Preventing Hazards at the Source

    53

    7.1 Summary
    53
    7.2 Principles of a New Model for a Preventive Industrial Hygiene
    54
    7.3 Barriers
    57
    7.4 Strategies and Opportunities
    57
    7.5 Recommendations
    58

    Chapter 7: Preventing Hazards at the Source


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    References

    59

    References


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