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    Full Publication

    Authors and Contributors
    ix
    1.0 Introduction
    1
    1.1 Purpose
    1
    1.2 Scope
    1
    1.3 Background
    1
    2.0 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
    4
    3.0 Identification and Assessment
    7
    3.1 Common Sources
    8
    3.1.1 Spills, Releases and Leaks in Buildings
    8
    3.2 Light Fixtures
    9
    3.2.1 General Recommendations
    9
    3.2.2 Inspection Procedures
    9
    3.3 Caulks and Coatings
    10
    3.3.1 Identification of Homogeneous Areas
    10
    3.3.2 Bulk Sampling
    11
    3.4 Surface Contamination
    12
    3.5 Soil Contamination
    12
    3.6 HVAC System Contamination
    13
    3.7 Field Screening Methods
    13
    3.7.1 XRF
    14
    3.7.2 Electrochemical Analysis
    14
    3.7.3 Immunoassay PCB Test Kits
    14
    3.7.4 Colorimetric Tests
    14
    3.8 Laboratory Analytical Methods
    15
    3.8.1 PCBs as Aroclors
    16
    3.8.2 PCBs as Homologs
    16
    3.8.3 PCBs as Congeners
    16
    3.9 Data Interpretation
    17
    3.10 Potential Co-Contaminants (Asbestos, Lead, Other)
    17
    4.0 Remediation
    20
    4.1 Abatement
    20
    4.2 Mitigation
    21
    4.2.1 Engineering Controls
    21
    4.2.2 Administrative Controls
    22
    4.3 Remediation Work Plans
    22
    4.4 Planning for Concurrent Hazards (Asbestos, Lead, Other)
    23
    4.5 Removing Light Fixtures
    23
    4.5.1 General Requirements for Removing Light Fixtures
    23
    4.5.2 Protocols for Removing Light Fixtures with Non-Asbestos Electrical Wiring
    23
    4.6 Remediation Methods
    24
    4.6.1 Physical Removal of Materials
    24
    4.6.2 Encapsulation
    25
    4.6.3 Impermeable Barriers
    26
    4.6.4 Bimetallic Treatments Systems/Activated Metal Treatment Systems
    26
    4.7 Contaminated Substrates
    27
    4.7.1 Porous Substrates
    27
    4.7.2 Non-Porous Substrates
    28
    4.8 Concrete Contaminated from Spills
    29
    4.8.1 Waste Characterization
    29
    4.8.2 Concrete Cleanup and Disposal
    30
    4.8.3 Continued Use Authorization
    30
    4.9 Soil Remediation
    31
    4.10 Evaluation of Remediation Methods
    32
    4.11 Post-Remediation Verification
    33
    4.12 Clearance Testing
    33
    4.12.1 Air Clearance Testing
    33
    4.12.2 Soil Clearance Testing
    34
    4.12.3 Surface Contamination Clearance Testing
    35
    4.12.4 Porous Substrates (Concrete, Stucco, Masonry) Clearance Testing
    35
    5.0 Worker Protection
    38
    5.1 Respiratory Protection for Particulate and Vapor Phase
    38
    5.2 Worker Protective Clothing (WPC)
    38
    5.3 Gloves
    39
    5.4 Hearing Protection
    39
    5.5 Decontamination Procedures
    39
    6.0 Exposure Assessment
    41
    6.1 Introduction
    41
    6.2 Occupational Exposure Limits
    41
    6.3 Exposed Population
    41
    6.4 Hazard Identification
    42
    6.4.1 Air Monitoring Guidance
    42
    6.4.2 Wipe Sampling
    42
    6.4.2 Interpretation of Data for Exposure Classification
    43
    6.4.4 Biological Monitoring Guidance
    43
    7.0 Air Monitoring
    46
    7.1 Ambient Air Monitoring
    46
    7.2 Personal Sampling
    46
    8.0 Waste Management And Disposal
    49
    8.1 PCB Waste Categories
    49
    8.2 Waste Disposal
    50
    8.3 Mixed PCB-Containing Waste Disposal
    51
    Appendix A: Acronyms and Definitions
    53
    Appendix B: PCB Species by Congener Number
    55

    Assessment and Remediation of PCBs in the Built Environment


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